"White-collar offenses shall constitute those classes of non-violent illegal activities which principally involve traditional notions of deceit, deception, concealment, manipulation, breach of trust, subterfuge or illegal circumvention." Department of Justice
In 1939, Edwin H. Sutherland (1893–1950), a symbolic interactionist sociologist used the phrase white-collar criminal in a December 27, 1939, speech to the American Sociological Association. In 1949, he defined white-collar crime as, "approximately as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation."
Symbolic interactionism examines the creation of personal identity through interactions and relationships. Sutherland defined theDifferential Association Theory, to explain how deviants gain motivation and technical knowledge. Sutherland embraced Interactionist Theory of Deviance, on how people learn to be criminals from interpersonal interaction with others. The Differential Association Theory of the Interactionist theory of deviance focuses on how individuals learn how to become criminals but not why they become criminals.
White-collar crimes are fraud, bankruptcy, bribery, insider trading, embezzlement, computer crime, medical crime, public corruption, identity theft, environmental crime, pension fund crime, RICO crimes, consumer fraud, occupational crime, securities fraud, financial fraud, and forgery.
In criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes committed by a corporation or individuals on behalf of a business entity. Corporate crime overlaps with: white-collar crime, organized crime, because criminals may set up corporations either for crime or laundering. The world’s gross criminal product was estimated at 20 percent of world trade (de Brie 2000).
White Collar Crime Prosecutions for September 2011
summarizes the government's efforts combating white collar crime -- the number of such cases, the investigative agencies involved, the laws cited, the busiest federal districts and the busiest federal judges.
White collar criminals convicted in California’s federal courts were less likely to serve prison time than their counterparts nationally over the past three fiscal years. Convicts received less time in a cell when judges did order incarceration.
The Madoff Chronicles-- Bernard Madoff bilked investors, friends, and philanthropists with his $65 billion Ponzi scheme. How did he do it? And how was he found out? Madoff is not the only one who is doing time for defrauding and embezzling his clients' cash. Enron and HealthSouth executives are members of Club Fed..Spectacular investing frauds like the one created by the New York financier typically happen during investing bubbles and only get exposed when they pop.
Hamer v. Sidway, a classic 19th century Contracts Law case, is an introduction to how the Socratic method works in a first year Contracts Law class in law school.
Fitting a punishment to white-collar crime - White Collar crime rarely prompts outrage or lengthy prison sentences. Yet financial crimes devastate an entire community. Their impact lasts for years, stealing crucial services or a lifetime's savings. It's perpetrators are often community leaders.
Carlyle's Way -- Made a mint inside the iron triangle of defense, government and industry. Among those associated with Carlyle are former U.S. president George Bush Sr., former U.K. prime minister John Major, and former president of the Philippines Fidel Ramos. Carlyle has counted George Soros, Prince Alwaleed bin Talal bin Abdul Aziz Alsaud of Saudi Arabia, and Osama bin Laden's family.
Financial Crimes Enforcement Network --The US Department of the Treasury established the FinCEN in 1990 to provide government-wide, multisource financial intelligence and analysis network. The organization's operation was broadened in 1994 to include regulatory responsibilities for administering the Bank Secrecy Act, one of the nation's most potent weapons for preventing corruption of the U.S. financial system.
Each year 6000 Americans lose their lives on the job and tens of thousands more are seriously injured or exposed to deadly poisons and carcinogens. If a workers dies on the job, due to a disregard for federal safety regulations, the maximum penalty the employer faces is 6 months in prison.
A private brand of civil justice, one without laws, juries or constitutional rights, shields corporations from costly verdicts, compromising judges and the public of its right to a day in court.
The Poor Still Pay More -- The National Consumer Law Center (NCLC) report that business crime, fraud and abuse thrive on the backs of the poor.
The Rip-off Report is the consumer reporting web site to enter complaints about companies and individuals ripping people off. All complaints remain public to create a working history for that company, unedited. Unlike the Better Business Bureau, Rip-off Report does not hide reports of "satisfied" complaints.