Juvenile Punishment

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Child and Youth Security Sourcebook: -- Protecting Children and Youth (Security Reference Series) by Chad T. Kimball Reports 1 in 5 young people are afraid of attending school because of potential threats. 7 out of 10 crimes committed against young people occur at school, home, neighborhood, nearby parks and playgrounds. Many face threats of abuse at home. Special sections cover statistics, recovery programs for young victims of violence, a glossary of related terms, and resources for further information.


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Juvenile justice is criminal law applicable to persons not old enough to be held responsible for criminal acts, usually, the age for criminal culpability is 18. The goal of the juvenile justice system is rehabilitation. Juveniles can be transferred into adult court if juvenile court waives or relinquishes jurisdiction.

The doctrine of parens patriae authorizes the state to legislate the protection, care, custody, and maintenance of children within its jurisdiction. The federal role is of funder and standard setter.Congress passed the Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control Act in 1968, in 1972 it was revised and renamed the Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Act. This assists states and local communities in preventative services to youth in danger of becoming delinquent and provides training in services and technical assistance occupations . The Act defines juvenile delinquency as any act that is otherwise a crime, committed by someone under 18, and sets rules state laws must comply with in juvenile court procedures and punishments.--Juvenile justice: an overview Cornell Law School

From 1976 through 2010, 242 homicides were committed in the US by children 10 and younger. Of those, 48 percent of victims were family, 20 percent were acquaintances and 8 percent were friends. James Alan Fox, professor of criminology, law and public policy at Northeastern University in Boston.

Is it constitutional to sentence a juvenile offender who commits an offense at age 13 to life in prison without the possibility of parole? Scott Drake talks with University of Miami Law Adjunct Professor Stephen K. Harper. He is theco-coordinator of the Capital Litigation Unit in the Miami-Dade Public Defenders Office.

The School-To-Prison Pipeline And The Private Prison Industry -- As if the US did not have a bloated enough prison population –our school systems are being transformed into yet another way to funnel people into the private prison system.

Mental Health Issues and Juvenile Justice - At least one out of every five youth in the juvenile justice system has serious mental health problems. Many have co-occurring substance abuse disorders, further exacerbating the problem. The ability of the juvenile justice system to deal with these problems is hindered by confusion about which agencies should provide services, inadequate screening and assessment, lack of training, inadequate funding and programs and lack of research.

Ethical Treatment for All Youth --Children and teenagers are stigmatized by a label that allows adults to do things to them that would be considered abusive and unethical in any other context.

Should juveniles be treated as adults? How Juveniles Get to Criminal Court. Crime school -- Does prosecuting teenagers as adults make society safer? The system was set up to rehabilitate young people before they became lifetime criminals. When a child kills, does he instantly become an adult? A young person released from juvenile prison is far less likely to commit a crime than someone coming out of an adult facility. The New Face of Juvenile Justice - Marquese has been stealing since he was 12. Jose took part in a deadly brawl. Manny and a gang brutally attacked a family. Shawn stabbed his father. They were all under 18, should they be tried as adults? Four kids, four crimes. Two were sent to adult court, two treated as juveniles. UK - How tags make offenders toe the line: The hard-core teens who now stay out of jail - and out of trouble. UK - Inspector's report on Dartmoor prison (pdf)

A 14-year-old boy sent to a "tough love" boot camp to learn confidence and self-respect died. Martin Lee Anderson died in January 2006, a day after entering a boot camp in Florida, from suffocation. Claims of machismo-fueled abuse and a low record of success, tough-love programs for juvenile offenders got the attenion of savvy Florida college students, civil rights activists and politicians. They are protesting the death of a 14-year-old boy in a rural North Florida boot camp, alleging not only abuse but a cover-up. The Debate on Boot Camp for Kids -- The camp claims 2/3 of juveniles released do not commit a crime within a year, but a federal government study shows boot camps have little impact. Now a series of high-profile incidents have put camps under intense scrutiny. Director Convicted In Camp Death CBS News -- Charles Long, 59, the director of an Arizona boot camp for troubled youths was convicted of manslaughter in the death of Anthony Haynes, a 14-year-old camper collapsed in the triple-digit desert heat. He died of complications from dehydration after collapsing. Prosecutors said campers wore black uniforms in the extreme heat, endured harsh discipline and slept on cement slabs.

Lionel Tate, 12, imitating professional wrestlers when he killed his playmate, Tiffany Eunick, 6, was sentenced to life in prison without parole.

Nathaniel Brazill, 14, was convicted of 2nd-degree murder for the killing of his English teacher, Barry Grunow. When A Child Kills - American Justice Latino -- Story of the sixth-grader who became the youngest American tried as an adult for murder. Nathaniel, who shot a teenager and claimed the killing was accidental, launched a debate between those who saw his treatment as inhumane and those who said killers of any age must pay for their actions. Includes an interview with Abraham's mother.

"Something's bound to go wrong" -- Benny Armande was a 15-year-old loner, brilliant, charming, poor and black. He was legendary.

The Youth Law Center is a public interest law firm that works to protect children in the nation's foster care and juvenile justice systems from abuse and neglect.

The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice - A private nonprofit organization whose mission is to reduce society's reliance on incarceration as a solution to social problems

The National Youth Court Center (NYCC) at the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) serves as a central point of contact for youth court programs across the nation. The NYCC was created by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP).

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Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency: A Comprehensive Framework by James C. Howell -- Created as an alternative to the punishment-oriented criminal justice system, the juvenile court is a unique American invention that has been replicated around the world. But to say that this system is without significant flaws would be misleading. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the juvenile justice system is a vital step towards improving counseling and rehabilitation programs.

Artful Dodgers: Youth and Crime in Early Nineteenth-Century London by Heather Shore
The early 19th century witnessed an increasing concern about the incidence of juvenile crime. Youthful delinquency was not new, but it was not until then that the foundations were laid for a juvenile justice system which would serve, with amendments, for the next century and more.

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